Thursday, August 27, 2009

on the topic of the californian mountain snake.

today's word is:


ps. "black mamba venom contains powerful, fast-acting neurotoxins and cardiotoxins, including calciseptine. its bite delivers about 100–120 mg of venom on average; however it can deliver up to 400 mg. if the venom reaches a vein, 0.25 mg/kg is sufficient to kill a human in 50% of cases. the initial symptom of the bite is local pain in the bite area, although not as severe as snakes with hemotoxins. the victim then experiences a tingling sensation in the mouth and extremities, ptosis, diplopia double vision), dysphagia, tunnel vision, ophthalmoparesis, severe confusion, dysarthria, fever, diaphoresis (excessive perspiration), excessive salivation (including foaming of the mouth and nose), and pronounced ataxia (lack of muscle control). if the victim does not receive medical attention, symptoms rapidly progress to severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, lymphadenopathy, dyspnea (shortness of breath), epistaxis, pallor, shock, nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and paralysis. eventually, the victim experiences convulsions, respiratory arrest, coma, and then death. without antivenom, the mortality rate is nearly 100%, the highest among venomous snakes. depending on the nature of the bite, death can result at any time between 15 minutes and 3 hours. factors associated with the nature of the bite include penetration of one or both fangs, amount of venom injected, location of the bite, and proximity to major blood vessels. the health of the snake and the interval since it last used its venom mechanism may also be factors. the health, size, age, and psychological state of the individual bitten is also a determining factor."

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